A History of Hall Effect Thrusters

A History of Hall Effect Thrusters

Hall Effect Thrusters were originally conceptualized in 1911 and began being implemented in the 1950’s and now are the main method of satellite propulsion in space. The move away from flammable propellant has spawned a wide array of propulsion technologies, with...

Ultra High Vacuum for Science & Research

Ultra High Vacuum for Science & Research

The first time I heard the expression “ultra-high vacuum”, I was sitting in a meeting in the 1970’s, looking at drawings, and was asked if the parts in the drawing complied. Luckily my colleague was on the ball and I did not need to confess that I wasn’t sure what they meant.

Ultra-high vacuum […]

What are Machinable Ceramics?

What are Machinable Ceramics?

For most people, ceramics are hard, brittle materials, mostly associated with tiles, bricks, and pottery. These functional and mostly clay-based materials are the most common ceramics in daily use.  The more specialist technical ceramics used in extreme environments and demanding […]